THE WALLACHIAN PRINCE VLAD ȚEPEȘ, NICKNAMED DRACULA

The Wallachian Prince Vlad Țepeș is one of the most famous Romanians in the world. We call him Romanian, because after the First World War, the constitution of the modern Romanian state took place, by uniting with Transylvania. The union between Wallachia and Moldavia took place in a first stage in 1859.

The nickname Dracula attached to its name is largely due to the well-known novel by B. Stocker, Dracula that appeared at the end of the nineteenth century. Novels are always fiction, even if they make use of some personalities or historical events.

The explanation of this nickname, Dracula, would be too simplistic if we refer only to this perspective. There is also a connotation that hints to secret societies. This is the hypothesis that we will develop.

Considering Prince Vlad Țepes, in terms of the sequence of events in which he was involved, outside the complex medieval European and Balkan context that was specific to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, would reduce the consistency of the approach to a descriptive one. *

I. Geiss in The History of the World, writing about the Balkan region of those years, draws a few considerations. „The region of the Balkans belongs to the land inhabited by the Germans and Italians in the west and the land occupied by the Russians and Turks in the east … respectively the one in the south occupied by the Greeks. Following a straight line, the Balkan region is located in the vicinity of the centers determined by the civilizations represented by Rome and Constantinople…  „/2/ This area „corresponds to an extreme ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious heterogeneity „/ 3 /

This transition space between East and West allowed the various empires, one after another, to influence and occupy/annex various territories. It was the stage of the glory of the Ottoman Empire. Many countries become pashalics: Bulgaria and Macedonia (1371), Serbia (1459), Bosnia and Herzegovina annexed in 1463, the fall of Constantinople (1453) and part of Hungary after the battle of Mohacs (1526). Transylvania remained autonomous. Wallachia and Moldova became vassals of the Ottoman Empire, without ever becoming pashalics. The Russian Empire and Austria also had various geopolitical, economic and military interests. Europe faced many problems from the beginning of the millennium to the end of the 15th century. The Great Schism (1054), numerous wars (including the Hundred Years), several pandemics, famines, the beginning of the Crusades, the emergence of the first social conditions in several countries, uprisings and numerous acts of violence against Jews. „Shaken by the crisis of the rural structure, it is also weakened by the religious crisis that affects ecclesiastical institutions, as well as the expression and faith itself „. / 3 /

There was a somewhat gloomy historical picture, generated by many tragic events, a poor health and nutrition state for a large part of the population.

In this historical context, Vlad Țepes (1431-1476) was born and he lived in Sighișoara, Transylvania, Romania. He was married for three times and had five children.

 

Sighișoara - România

He was the Prince of Wallachia for three times. In 1448 for a few months, then he reigned between 1456-1462, for the end of this status to end in 1476 (two months). In the same year he is supposed to have died during a battle with the Turks. His disappearance has remained unclear, although there have been assumptions or some conspiracy theories.

As the Prince of Wallachia, Vlad the Impaler resorted to a harsh and ruthless policy against traitorous noblemen and endemic corruption, he eliminated his opponents physically, he tried to implement some timid reforms for the needy part of the population. He fought several battles with the Turks. He spent several years in prison. He was a political figure, somewhat brutal, inconsistent in his foreign policy, even if the fight against the Turks was an undisputed attitude, being overtly anti-Ottoman. **

Let’s try to clarify, from a historical perspective, the appellation of Dracula attached to the Wallachian Prince Vlad Țepeș. First of all, there is a family connotation. Vlad Țepeș’s father (Vlad II) is the founder of a noble family, the Draculans Dynasty (Dinastia Drăculeștilor) that included a famous family of Wallachian princes, the Basarab family. Draculea could also have a meaning taken from Vlad II, Dracul (the devil), a member of the Order of the Dragon.

After his establishment in Sighișoara, Transylvania (1431), Vlad II goes under the protection of the Hungarian king, Sigismund of Luxembourg.

 

THE ORDER OF THE DRAGON

The Order of the Dragon (Societas Draconistrarum), a secret religious order, was created at the initiative of King Sigismund of Luxembourg (1408), having multiple objectives (some of them being secret), including the defense of Christianity from the Ottoman danger. This religious order did not have a structure similar to that of the Order of the Knights Templar. There were eleven founding members, civilian noblemen from almost all parts of Europe. The spiritual patrons of this order were Saint George, Saint Archangel Michael and Saint Margaret, and Sigismund of Luxembourg was elected Master Magnificus. Vlad II was admitted in this religious Order. He was the father of Vlad Țepeș and he was later nicknamed Dracul (the Devil). The symbolism of this order was represented by a dragon in a certain position. This symbolism has caused some controversy. There was a topic that eluded the attention of analysts. The Order of the Dragon was established in 1408. Being a religious order, it was necessary to issue a Papal Bull. I did not find in my search the year of the termination of this medieval Order. A new Papal Bull was needed, similar to the one called Vox in Excelso which terminated the Order of the Knights Templar (1312). If there is no such bull (even a secret one), then the Order of the Dragon, (the one established in 1408) may be still functional nowadays. Not to be confused with other Dragon Orders (of various colors) that coexist with us.

As a knight, he allowed the building of new fortresses (Severin and Caransebeș) that housed garrisons of the Teutonic Knights. The Turks slaughtered them all. A few years later he is erased from the records of this religious order. A somewhat relevant observation. Among the founders of this religious order was the King of Naples. ***

Therefore, the name Dracula has a certain justification given by dynastic order, but also by his father’s membership in the Order of the Dragon.

Bram Stocker speculates this euphemism excellently, in relation to the needs of the perception of the collective mind. This literary character created by Stocker “has become a true myth of modernity, cultivated around the demonic, dreamlike and fantastic taste of the Western cultural space. Its definition includes literary characters, as well as popular beliefs (ghosts, undead, vampires). The connection with the Romanian Prince Vlad Tepeș, nicknamed Dracula is debatable and promoted especially for tourism reasons… ”/ 4 /

 

 BRAN CASTLE FROM TRANSYLVANIA, ROMANIA AND VLAD ȚEPES

A lot of legends, myths, real facts, but also a lot of imagination support a controversial history of Bran Castle. Its association with the Wallachian Prince Vlad Țepeș (nicknamed Dracula) in B. Stocker’s novel brought it worldwide fame.

Initially, on the site of Bran Castle, there was an old medieval fortress belonging to the Order of the Teutonic Knights. In 1377, the Hungarian king Ludovic I issued a document that allowed the Saxons from Brașov the right to build a stone fortress. The fortress was a defensive one, but it could also cover for customs and border functions. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHRcQmQ_hK0 )* Over time, the fortress had different jurisdictions. In 1920, the city of Brașov donated the castle to Queen Maria of Romania. In 2006, the castle was returned to its legal heirs.

In the coordinates of the historical facts there is no direct connection between this castle and the character Dracula.

 

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF PRINCE VLAD ȚEPEȘ. MYSTERIES, THEORIES, HYPOTHESES

So far, the mystery of Vlad Țepeș’s disappearance and death has not been solved. More than five hundred years have passed. Reputable historians, archaeologists, researchers have been concerned with this enigma.

Two work hypotheses were considered.

The first claimed that Vlad Țepeș was killed in the last battle with the Turks. From here, things get trickier. One side advances the idea that he was beheaded, and his head was presented in a spike as a trophy to the sultan. The body was dumped or buried in an unknown location. In time, he was recovered and buried as a Christian, either at the Snagov Monastery or Cașin, in the Bucharest area. All investigations, newer or older, do not confirm this hypothesis, but they seem rather a wish.

The second hypothesis imposes the solution of imprisonment by the Turks. There are no elements of confirmation/refutation by Romanian researchers, and the passing of time does not help us.

Such research on the history of Romanians, in this case, in my opinion, was a complex error in regard to its approach. Vlad Țepeș’s search had only two connotations that were Christian in nature and anti-Ottoman in attitude. But why didn’t they consider his belonging to a secret initiatory society, the Order of the Dragon? The dragon is not a Christian symbolism, but one of the ancient initiation secret societies of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Far East. Here is the key to the unresolved equation regarding the disappearance of Vlad the Impaler.

In recent years, an almost sensational version has appeared about the place of Vlad Țepeș’s burial. Il Mattino, an Italian publication, based on research conducted by Italians and Estonians, claims that Vlad Dracula is buried in a cemetery in Naples. (https://www.ilmattino.it/napoli/cronaca/dracula_napoli-452285.html). I quote: “In 1476, Count Vlad Țepeș Dracula, who belongs to the Order of the Dragon as did King of Naples Ferrante D’Aragona, disappears during a battle against the Turks and he is declared dead”, explains the scholar Raffaello Glinni. ”One of his daughters, Maria, at the age of seven was adopted by a Neapolitan woman and taken to the kingdom of Naples. Here she later marries a Neapolitan nobleman from the Ferrillo family. The couple receives the Acerenza territories of Basilicata as a „gift”, but it is so closely linked to Naples that, after death, the spouses are buried in Naples”. The story is well known, il Mattino told it a few years ago.

But the turning point came in recent months, almost by accident. A Neapolitan student, Erika Stella went to the monastery of Santa Maria La Nova for her bachelor’s thesis. She took a picture that she found „strange.” She decided to find answers. She involved scholars, even Estonians ones… They looked at the picture and they were shocked… According to scholars, two hypotheses are confirmed: 1) Count Dracula did not die in battle, but was taken prisoner by the Turks; 2) His daughter Maria redeemed her imprisoned father and took him to Italy. After his death, he was buried in Naples.

But why were there so many certainties? The marble (inlaid symbolism- sn), which belongs to the tomb of Ferrillo, Dracula’s „son-in-law”, is full of references that would not belong to the remains of a man who should be inside… “Look at the bas-reliefs, explains Glinni radiantly, it is clear. Remember that the count was named Dracula Țepeș. You see that here we have the representation of a dragon, in fact Dracula, and there are two symbols of Egyptian origin never seen on a European tomb. These are two opposing sphinxes that represent the name of the city of Thebes, which the Egyptians called Țepeș. Dracula Țepeș is „written” in those symbols, the name of the count. Is there a need for more confirmations? Maybe so, it’s needed.”

Few comments and even more mysteries. ****

We can overcome the mysteries from the perspective of secret societies. The codex, regulations and oaths taken require absolute confidentiality in relation to third parties. In any case, if there were negotiations between the Wallachian prince’s family in Naples, the King of Naples and the Ottoman side, this would not have been possible without the express consent of the decision-makers within the Order of the Dragon. Perhaps he negotiated, through intermediaries, with the Ottoman side. It is possible that Vlad Țepeș, although not an official figure in that religious Order, was an initiated person and a member of that Order, with ancestry in the Egyptian secret societies. Can you imagine that the Catholic church at the end of the 15th century would have allowed a person with signs other than Christian ones to be buried in the most important cemetery in the city? In the golden age of the Inquisition!!!

The heraldry and symbolism on the Funerary Marble, with two sculpted sphinxes, send us to the entrance of a specific temple in Egyptian mythology. The authorities did not allow the exhumation. We have no certainty that the remains of the Wallachian ruler are there. In any variant of work, there are the mineral remains of an important, perhaps a high dignitary… from the world of initiates. If he belonged to a four-dimensional world, we will find nothing in that tomb.

 

PRINCE CHARLES AND WALLACHIAN PRINCE VLAD ȚEPEȘ

In order to eliminate any inadvertence of interpretation, I will present an edifying video from the first beginning. (https://lnkd.in/ggzZKQ7)***** The British press has, over time, made the necessary historical clarifications on this subject. „According to the Romania Tour Store website, Charles is the great-grandson 16 times removed of none other than Vlad the Impaler, through the consort of George V, Queen Mary.”

 (https://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/1191170/prince-charles-family-tree-dracula-heir-bloodline-romania-royal-links)

Prince Charles is an exceptional ambassador of Romania’s tourism image in the world.

 

INSTEAD OF CLOSURE

 

The fictional character Dracula, associated with the Wallachian Prince Vlad Țepes, seems a simplistic one, loaded with many phantasmagoric and mythological connotations, which must be taken as such in the context of the novel and the numerous films dedicated to him. The real historical character who lived in the 15th century is a complex one, with many sides of his controversial personality, belonging to one of the most important Wallachian noble families from the beginning of the first millennium. The Christian world, of which Vlad Țepes was part, was preparing their defense strategies against the Ottoman expansion. The symbolism and name of the Order of the Dragon, a secret Christian society can lead to the analysis of some unsuspected connotations. New opportunities arise for possible clarifications to complete the history reflected on this topic.

The text represents the point of view of the author

Bibliography

* Cronologia universala, Larousse, Editura Lider, 1996, pp. 177-206

/1/ I. Geiss, Istoria lumii, Editura All, 2012, p. 302

/2/ Ibidem, p. 302

/3/ J. Carpentier, F.Lebrun (coord), Istoria Europei, Ed. Humanitas, 1997, p. 181

** https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_%C8%9Aepe%C8%99 (Vlad Țepes)

***https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinul_Dragonului

/4/ Enciclopedia Universală Britanică, Volumul V, Editura Litera, 2010, p. 172

**** More documentation on the hypothesis of Dracula’s burial in Naples, accompanied by photographs, can be found on the online edition of this publication (https://www.visitnaples.eu/en/neapolitanity/tales-of-naples/a-church-in-naples-hosts-draculas-tomb). We can also add ( https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/draculas-tomb-discovered-in-italy-67748)

***** Source, Youtube.

Velemir Radovan

Velemir Radovan

Sociologist, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Philosophy, Sociology specialization. Phd. Sociology, University of Bucharest, PhD, Social and Political Sciences. Postgraduate in public administration / civil servants driving /, Organizational Management, National Institute of Administration, Bucharest. DIPLOME POSTUNIVERSITAIRE DE SPECIALISATION EN'' POULATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT'', CENTRE DEMOGRAPHIQUE O.N.U.-ROUMANIE. Certificate diploma, Three-step training program for social child protection specialists, USAID, WORLD LEARNING CHILDNET PROGRAM, UNICEF, CRIPS. Certificate of Developer, DFID, MMSS,BIRKS SINCLAIR&ASSOCIATESLTD.. Other certifications: Project manager. Trainer. Mediator. Expert in social work. . Measuring poverty and social exclusion. Fundamentals of Public Administration. Social Management. Social services development.
Global Goodwill Ambassador. Humanitarian. Sociologist, Head of Department, Executive Director, General Manager, Labour and Social Security Service, Olt County, ROMANIA. Associate Professor, University of Pitești, Romania.. RESEARCHER, IRSOP-MARKET RESEARCHCONSULTING Ltd., Bucharest. Expert, Birks Sinclair & Associates Ltd, Ministry of Labour, DFID. Member, Executive Secretary, COMMISSION FOR PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN. Executive Secretary, Demography County Commission, OLT. Publications: BOOKS, RESEARCH, STUDIES, ESSEYS.

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